How to laminate 3D Glass Fabric(2)

2. Vacuum Infusion

Vacuum Infusion

Step1: Prepare mold and treat the surface with release agent

Step2: Lay the fabric onto the mold

Step3: Place the peel-ply onto the fabric, then the infusion mesh,

finally the bagging film on the top.

Step4: Position the resin inlet and air outlet

Step5: Seal the whole bag

Step6: Connect the vacuum pump, creat a vacuum and test

Step7: Mix the resin with curing and other agent, and defoam

Step8: Infuse the mixed resin in vacuum condition

Step9: Once the fabric is fully impregnated with the resin, unseal the bag, let the air in, then the fabric will rise to the preset height

Step10: Product curing

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How to laminate 3D Glass Fabric(1)

When the 3D fabric is impregnated with a thermo set resin ,the fabric absorbs the resin and rises to the preset height.

The Resin/fabric content weight ratio 1:1, curing agent: MEKPO 1.5-2%.

Mainly there are two ways of process we can laminate.

1.Hand Lay-up

Hand Layup

Step1: Apply 50% of the resin on the smooth surface of mold and distribute it evenly.

Step2: Apply the 3D fabric into the resin

Step3: Roll the fabric firmly but gently along the weft direction to secure a good contact with the resin underneath.

Step4: Evenly apply the remaining 40% of the resin over the fabric and distribute it evenly

Step5: Roll resin gently into the fabric. The capillary forces of the vertical piles will impregnate the fabric and rise into the preset height.

Step6: After cured ,a piece of 3D composite is formed.

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What’s 3D fabric

3D Fiberglass Fabric

3D fabric or called 3D cloth/3D mat is a sandwich woven fabric,which consists of two deck layers formed by warp and weft direction fibers,and with Z direction fibers(vertical piles) which interconnect both deck layers.

The structure type of vertical piles is usually 8 shape piles in warp direction,with excellent stability of mechanical properties and surface evenness.Other type of vertical piles,like I shape or V shape can be customized too for different application.

It can be woven with glass fibers,carbon fibers,Kevlar fibers and other high performance fibers.

3D Carbon Fiber Fabric

The thickness of 3D fabric can be designed to meet different needs.The 3D fiberglass fabric we now produced can be from 3mm to 30mm,max width 1800mm.The 3D carbon fiber fabric we produced is max 18mm thick.

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S glass Application

Main application of S glass

1 Aerospace

At present, S glass accounts for 20%-30% of the material market in world aviation industry. Common materials include Glare laminate, S glass unidirectional prepreg and S glass woven fabric. It is widely use as aircraft interior materials, floor, hatch, wing leading edge, radome, auxiliary fuel tank, helicopter wing and so on.

2 Defense Military

S glass has large elongation at break and good impact resistance,an ideal material for absorbing energy. The composite laminate with S glass roving and phenolic resin can be used in various military applications or bulletproof armor for civilian purposes.

3 General Civil Industry

3-1 Automotive Industry

Utilizing the high temperature resistance of S glass, it is used as a muffler filler to reduce noise; S glass and rubber material are combined to make a timing belt. This timing belt is more resistant to high temperature and corrosion than the metal chain in the automobile engine.

3.2 Pressure vessel reinforcement

S glass fiber can be directly used to wind various high-pressure gas cylinders (medical, coal mine, fire fighting, mountain sports), or used together with carbon fiber to enhance the impact resistance and friction resistance of the cylinder.

3.3 Motor Industry

The traditional steering ring is mostly a metal ring, which is not only low in strength but also insulative. The reinforcing ring produced by S glass not only has good insulation performance, but also can reach 2-3 times of the steel ring. It can ensure that the rotor shaft generates strong centrifugal force under high-speed operation and plays a fixed role on the enameled wire.

3.4 High-strength grille

The S glass has high strength and good corrosion resistance, and can be used for producing an ultra-long span grid, and the interval of the longitudinal ribs can be very large. The high-strength grille products passed the US Coast Guard test. It is widely used in offshore oil platforms, pedestrian passages, ship decks, subways, coal mines and other emergency escape routes or life-saving places.

3.5 Wind power generation

The power generation of a single wind turbine is proportional to the square of the length of the wind blade, which requires the wind blade size to be as long as possible to increase power generation efficiency and reduce power generation costs. The enlargement of the blade requires the blade itself to have a high rigidity and hardness to avoid bending deformation of the blade and collision of the tower body during strong wind.

3.6 Sports and leisure industry

S glass is used as a fiber-reinforced material to produce onshore and aquatic items such as skis, surfboards, yachts, and sailboats. It can also be used to manufacture fishing rods, hockey sticks, baseball bats and softball bats.

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S glass properties

Compared with common E glass fiber, S glass fiber has the following six characteristics: high tensile strength, high elastic modulus, good rigidity&high beak elongation , good impact resistance, good chemical stability, high temperature resistance&fatigue resistance and good radar wave .

1 Tensile strength and elastic modulus of S glass

The tensile strength and elastic modulus of S glass fiber are increased by 30%-40% and 16%-20%, respectively, than E glass fiber. Composites made of high-strength glass fibers have a strength and modulus that are nearly 50% higher than those of composites made of E glass.

2 Impact resistance

The break elongation indicates the ability of the fiber to resist impact deformation and is an important indicator of the impact resistance of the material. The elongation of the high-strength glass fiber is more than 5%. Compared with aramid fiber and carbon fiber, it has the largest deformation ability under certain stress and can fully absorb impact energy. This property determines that S glass can be used as an ideal bulletproof material.

3 fatigue resistance

The fatigue resistance of S glass fiber is 10 times higher than that of E-glass fiber. The modified characteristics determine that the composite material made of S glass has a longer working life.

4 Chemical stability characteristics

S glass has high chemical stability, and its strength retention rate after boiling, pickling and alkali washing is higher than that of E glass.

5 High temperature resistance

S glass fiber is melted at a higher temperature than E-glass fiber with a higher softening point. Usually, S glass fiber is 100-150 degrees Celsius more than E-glass fiber.

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What’s S glass

In 1938, Owens Corning invented the E glass, and then the United States Air Force required to develop a glass fiber with higher strength and modulus than the E glass fiber, which because of its high strength, named S glass.

S glass has a tensile strength increase of 30%-40% compared with conventional E glass, and the elastic modulus is increased by 15%-20%. In 1968, the commercialized product S2 glass was launched.

After 1998, S2 glass was produced and sold by AGY.

Since the 1970s, China has successfully developed its own HS series S glass with independent intellectual property rights, and its product performance is close to S2 glass AGY.

S Glass Fiber

In recent years, with the increasing demand, S glass has been developed rapidly in developed countries such as North America and Europe. The annual demand has increased by more than 25% since 2004. S glass fiber is mainly produced by  AGY Company. Its production and sales account for 80% of the world. In China, S glass is a new material that the government encourages to develop, and its develop speed is also very fast.

SiO2-Al2O3-MgO2 or SiO2-Al2O3-CaO-MgO is the main system of S glass. The mass fraction of various S glass components is slightly different, but the content of main oxides is higher than that of E-glass, among which the content of Al2O3 are all around 25%.

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New Hybrid Fiber Composite

Researchers at the University of Portsmouth School of Engineering produced composites from natural fiber and basalt fiber blends that have high mechanical strength. Researchers believe that these hybrid materials can replace carbon and glass fibers in the automotive, aerospace and marine industries.

Dr. Hom Nath Dhakal, who is in charge of the university’s research team, said: “We are working hard to address the major challenges of using natural reinforced composites for structural and semi-structural applications. These lightweight alternatives can help reduce vehicle weight and fuel consumption. Reduce carbon dioxide emissions.”

Hybrid composites made from natural fibers and basalt fibers are sustainable, biodegradable, easy to recycle, and require less energy to produce than glass and carbon fibers.

The results of the research on the structure, physicochemical properties and mechanical properties of date palm fiber are published in “Composite Science and Technology” and Composite Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing.

Dr. Dhakal also said that hybrid composite solutions will be the development direction of natural fiber composites.

What’s high silica fiberglass

High silica fiberglass is the abbreviation of high-purity silica amorphous continuous fiberglass, in which the silica content is more than 96%, the continuous working temperature is 1000 degrees Celsius, and the short-term temperature is 1400 degrees Celsius.

high silica yarn

High silica fiber can maintain good strength and elasticity for a long time at 1000 degrees Celsius. It is an effective thermal barrier for ultra-high temperature heat flow and jet flame, and a reliable protection device for personnel facilities. The high silica fiber also has low thermal conductivity and good resistance to high thermal shock.

The performance of high silica products is inert to most chemicals. It has good corrosion resistance to high temperature compounds, corrosive minerals and weakly alkaline molten alloys. It can work normally under high heat and strong radiation conditions.

high silica needle mat

The high silica products mainly include continuous yarn,woven rope, sleeve, fabric, chopped strand mat,stitched fabric, mainly used in 1000 degree ultra-high temperature fire insulation, single fiber diameter mainly 6 um to 9 um, does not contain any asbestos or ceramic wool, completely harmless to health.

At present, it has been widely used in spacecraft heat-resistant ablation materials, high-temperature insulation, high-temperature gas dust collection, liquid filtration, metal melting filtration, purification, etc.

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